Beyond your family doctor and dentist, you or your loved ones may someday need to visit other health specialists to monitor your ongoing health or address an immediate concern. Here’s a breakdown of some common practitioners and their roles.

Allergists: Doctors who specialize in allergies and their symptoms. They can help you identify allergen triggers and treat severe allergies.

Bariatric Surgeons: Specialists in gastric bypass and other weight loss procedures.

Electrophysiologists: One of many subspecialists who address specific cardiac needs, these cardiologists have training in “electrical” heart issues, including arrhythmia.

Emergency Room Doctors: These experts act fast to save lives, stabilize injuries, and prevent limb or eyesight loss.

Endocrinologists: Specializing in hormones, endocrinologists can treat diabetes, infertility, and hypothyroidism.

Gastroenterologists: Experts in the digestive system who can diagnose conditions like stomach ulcers, Crohn’s disease, and colorectal cancer.

Hematologists: Doctors who treat anemia, leukemia, and other blood-related diseases.

Infectious Disease Specialists: They see patients for diseases that are difficult to diagnose or treat, such as Lyme disease, HIV, and tuberculosis.

Internists: Like family health doctors, internists specialize in the long-term care of adult patients. They often do rotations in hospitals.

Maxillofacial Surgeons: Surgeons who perform advanced dental surgery beyond the scope of a family dentist. They remove wisdom teeth, realign jaws, extract oral tumors, and more.

Neurologists: Doctors who treat brain and nerve disorders, including migraine, strokes, and epilepsy.

Oncologists: Cancer experts who perform chemotherapy and other cancer treatments. They work with a team of specialists based on where the cancer is located.

Physiatrists: They help with rehabilitation after an injury and can also treat chronic pain and often lead a team that includes physical therapists.

Podiatrists: These foot-care specialists undergo a unique training process and help treat diseases of the foot and ankle, including those associated with diabetes.

Psychiatrists: Doctors who combine therapy with medications (when needed) to address mental health needs like depression, addiction, and ADHD.

Pulmonologists: Lung-care experts specializing in asthma, breathing-related sleep issues, and other breathing conditions.

Rheumatologists: Joint-care experts who address arthritis, osteoporosis, and other causes of joint pain.

Urologists: Doctors who care for the urinary tract and related organs. Men often see urologists for erectile dysfunction and prostate health.